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OSPF(二):广播多路访问链路上的OSPF

已有 4770 次阅读  2013-08-27 22:56   标签OSPF  BMA 

1、配置路由器R1
R1(config)#int lo 0
R1(config-if)#ip add 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#int f0/0
R1(config-if)#no shut
R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#router ospf 110
R1(config-router)#router-id 1.1.1.1
R1(config-router)#net 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
R1(config-router)#net 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
 
2、配置路由器R2
R2(config)#int lo 0
R2(config-if)#ip add 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#int f0/0
R2(config-if)#no shut
R2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#router ospf 110
R2(config-router)#router-id 2.2.2.2
R2(config-router)#net 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
 
3、配置路由器R3
R3(config)#int lo 0
R3(config-if)#ip add 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#int f0/0
R3(config-if)#no shut
R3(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#router ospf 110
R3(config-router)#router-id 3.3.3.3
R3(config-router)#net 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
 
4、配置路由器R4
R4(config)#int lo 0
R4(config-if)#ip add 4.4.4.4 255.255.255.0
R4(config-if)#int f0/0
R4(config-if)#no shut
R4(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.4 255.255.255.0
R4(config-if)#exit
R4(config)#router ospf 110
R4(config-router)#router-id 4.4.4.4
R4(config-router)#net 4.4.4.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
R4(config-router)#net 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 a 0
 
5、实验查看与调试
(1)show ip ospf neighbor
R1#sh ip ospf nei
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
2.2.2.2           1   FULL/BDR        00:00:39    192.168.1.2     FastEthernet0/0
3.3.3.3           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:38    192.168.1.3     FastEthernet0/0
4.4.4.4           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:31    192.168.1.4     FastEthernet0/0
//以上输出表明在该广播多路访问网络中,R1是DR,R2是BDR,R3和R4为DROTHER。
 
PS:①为了避免路由器之间建立完全邻接关系而引起的大量开销,OSPF要求在多路访问的网络中选举一个DR,每个路由器都与之建立邻接关系。选举DR的同时也选举出一个BDR,在DR失效的时候,BDR担负起DR的职责,所有其他路由器只与DR和BDR建立邻接关系。
② DR和BDR有它们自己的组播地址224.0.0.6。
③ DR和BDR的选举是以各个网络为基础的,也就是说,DR和BDR选举是一个路由器的接口特性,而不是整个路由器的特性。
④ DR选举的原则:
a.首要因素是时间,最先启动的路由器被选举成DR;
b.如果同时启动,或者重新选举,则看接口优先级(范围为0~255),优先级最高的被选举成DR,在默认情况下,多路访问网络的接口优先级为1,点到点网络接口优先级为0,修改接口优先级的命令是”ip ospf priority”,如果接口的优先级被设置为0,那么该接口将不参与DR选举;
c.如果前两者相同,最后看路由器ID,路由器ID最高的被选举成DR。
d.在本实验中,40s内同时启动各个路由器,而接口优先级又是一样的,则router-id值大的被选举为DR,其次大的被选举为BDR。结果如下所示:
R3#do sh ip os nei
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
1.1.1.1           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:32    192.168.1.1     FastEthernet0/0
2.2.2.2           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:39    192.168.1.2     FastEthernet0/0
4.4.4.4           1   FULL/DR         00:00:30    192.168.1.4     FastEthernet0/0
R4#sh ip os nei
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
1.1.1.1           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:30    192.168.1.1     FastEthernet0/0
2.2.2.2           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:37    192.168.1.2     FastEthernet0/0
3.3.3.3           1   FULL/BDR        00:00:30    192.168.1.3     FastEthernet0/0
⑤Dr选举是非抢占的,除非人为的重新选举。重新选举DR的方法有两种,一是路由器重新启动;二是执行”clear ip ospf process”命令。
 
(2)show ip ospf interface
分别在路由器R1和R4上执行该命令:
R1#sh ip ospf interface
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 192.168.1.1/24, Area 0
  Process ID 110, Router ID 1.1.1.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1
  //网络类型为BROADCAST
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1
  //自己的state为DR
  Designated Router (ID) 1.1.1.1, Interface address 192.168.1.1
  //DR的路由器ID以及接口地址
  Backup Designated router (ID) 2.2.2.2, Interface address 192.168.1.2
  //BDR的路由器ID以及接口地址
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:03
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Index 2/2, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
  Neighbor Count is 3, Adjacent neighbor count is 3
  //R1是DR,有3个邻居,并且全部形成邻接关系
    Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2  (Backup Designated Router)
 //R2是BDR
    Adjacent with neighbor 3.3.3.3
    Adjacent with neighbor 4.4.4.4
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
Loopback0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 1.1.1.1/24, Area 0
  Process ID 110, Router ID 1.1.1.1, Network Type LOOPBACK, Cost: 1
  Loopback interface is treated as a stub Host
 
R4#sh ip ospf interface
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 192.168.1.4/24, Area 0
  Process ID 110, Router ID 4.4.4.4, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1
  //网络类型为BROADCAST
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DROTHER, Priority 1
  //自己的state为DROTHER
  Designated Router (ID) 1.1.1.1, Interface address 192.168.1.1
  //DR的路由器ID以及接口地址
  Backup Designated router (ID) 2.2.2.2, Interface address 192.168.1.2
  //BDR的路由器ID以及接口地址
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:06
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Index 2/2, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 0, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
  Neighbor Count is 3, Adjacent neighbor count is 2
  //有3个邻居,只与R1和R2形成邻接关系,而与R3只是邻居关系。
    Adjacent with neighbor 1.1.1.1  (Designated Router)
    Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2  (Backup Designated Router)
 //上面两行表示与DR和BDR形成邻接关系
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
Loopback0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 4.4.4.4/24, Area 0
  Process ID 110, Router ID 4.4.4.4, Network Type LOOPBACK, Cost: 1
  Loopback interface is treated as a stub Host
 
PS:从上面的路由器R1和R4的输出得知,邻居关系和邻接关系是不能混为一谈的,邻居关系是指达到2WAY状态的两台路由器,而邻接关系是指达到FULL状态的两台路由器。结果如下所示:
R3#sh ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
1.1.1.1           1   FULL/DR         00:00:38    192.168.1.1     FastEthernet0/0
2.2.2.2           1   FULL/BDR        00:00:33    192.168.1.2     FastEthernet0/0
4.4.4.4           1   2WAY/DROTHER    00:00:35    192.168.1.4     FastEthernet0/0
R4#sh ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
1.1.1.1           1   FULL/DR         00:00:33    192.168.1.1     FastEthernet0/0
2.2.2.2           1   FULL/BDR        00:00:38    192.168.1.2     FastEthernet0/0
3.3.3.3           1   2WAY/DROTHER    00:00:37    192.168.1.3     FastEthernet0/0
 
(3)debug ip ospf adj
//该命令显示OSPF邻接关系创建或中断的过程
R2#debug ip ospf adj
OSPF adjacency events debugging is on
R2#clear ip ospf process
Reset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: y
*Aug 26 15::38:19.163: OSPF: Interface FastEthernet0/0 going Down
*Aug 26 15::38:19.163: OSPF: 2.2.2.2 address 192.168.1.2 on FastEthernet0/0 is dead, state DOWN
*Aug 26 15::38:19.167: OSPF: Neighbor change Event on interface FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.171: OSPF: DR/BDR election on FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.175: OSPF: Elect BDR 4.4.4.4
*Aug 26 15::38:19.175: OSPF: Elect DR 1.1.1.1
*Aug 26 15::38:19.175: OSPF: Elect BDR 4.4.4.4
*Aug 26 15::38:19.175: OSPF: Elect DR 1.1.1.1
*Aug 26 15::38:19.175:        DR: 1.1.1.1 (Id)   BDR: 4.4.4.4 (Id)
*Aug 26 15::38:19.175: OSPF: Reset adjacency with 3.3.3.3 on FastEthernet0/0, state 2WAY
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: 1.1.1.1 address 192.168.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 is dead, state DOWN
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 110, Nbr 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Neighbor change Event on interface FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: DR/BDR election on FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Elect BDR 4.4.4.4
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Elect DR 4.4.4.4
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179:        DR: 4.4.4.4 (Id)   BDR: 4.4.4.4 (Id)
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Remember old DR 1.1.1.1 (id)
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: 3.3.3.3 address 192.168.1.3 on FastEthernet0/0 is dead, state DOWN
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 110, Nbr 3.3.3.3 on FastEthernet0/0 from 2WAY to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Neighbor change Event on interface FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: DR/BDR election on FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Elect BDR 4.4.4.4
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Elect DR 4.4.4.4
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179:        DR: 4.4.4.4 (Id)   BDR: 4.4.4.4 (Id)
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: 4.4.4.4 address 192.168.1.4 on FastEthernet0/0 is dead, state DOWN
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 110, Nbr 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Neighbor change Event on interface FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: DR/BDR election on FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Elect BDR 0.0.0.0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Elect DR 0.0.0.0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179:        DR: none    BDR: none
*Aug 26 15::38:19.179: OSPF: Remember old DR 4.4.4.4 (id)
*Aug 26 15::38:19.203: OSPF: Interface FastEthernet0/0 going Up
*Aug 26 15::38:19.243: OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0, state 2WAY
*Aug 26 15::38:19.251: OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 3.3.3.3 on FastEthernet0/0, state 2WAY
*Aug 26 15::38:19.255: OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0, state 2WAY
*Aug 26 15::38:19.255: OSPF: Backup seen Event before WAIT timer on FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.259: OSPF: DR/BDR election on FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.263: OSPF: Elect BDR 4.4.4.4
*Aug 26 15::38:19.263: OSPF: Elect DR 1.1.1.1
*Aug 26 15::38:19.263:        DR: 1.1.1.1 (Id)   BDR: 4.4.4.4 (Id)
*Aug 26 15::38:19.267: OSPF: Send DBD to 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x119B opt 0x52 flag 0x7 len 32
*Aug 26 15::38:19.271: OSPF: Send DBD to 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x11F opt 0x52 flag 0x7 len 32
*Aug 26 15::38:19.287: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0xFBD opt 0x52 flag 0x7 len 32  mtu 1500 state EXSTART
*Aug 26 15::38:19.291: OSPF: First DBD and we are not SLAVE
*Aug 26 15::38:19.331: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x119B opt 0x52 flag 0x2 len 112  mtu 1500 state EXSTART
*Aug 26 15::38:19.331: OSPF: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the MASTER
*Aug 26 15::38:19.331: OSPF: Send DBD to 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x119C opt 0x52 flag 0x1 len 32
*Aug 26 15::38:19.331: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x13F4 opt 0x52 flag 0x7 len 32  mtu 1500 state EXSTART
*Aug 26 15::38:19.331: OSPF: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the SLAVE
*Aug 26 15::38:19.331: OSPF: Send DBD to 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x13F4 opt 0x52 flag 0x0 len 32
*Aug 26 15::38:19.379: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x119C opt 0x52 flag 0x0 len 32  mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE
*Aug 26 15::38:19.379: OSPF: Exchange Done with 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.379: OSPF: Send LS REQ to 1.1.1.1 length 48 LSA count 4
*Aug 26 15::38:19.387: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x13F5 opt 0x52 flag 0x3 len 112  mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE
*Aug 26 15::38:19.387: OSPF: Send DBD to 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x13F5 opt 0x52 flag 0x0 len 32
*Aug 26 15::38:19.395: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 length 200 LSA count 4
*Aug 26 15::38:19.403: OSPF: Synchronized with 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0, state FULL
*Aug 26 15::38:19.407: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 110, Nbr 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done
*Aug 26 15::38:19.423: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x13F6 opt 0x52 flag 0x1 len 32  mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE
*Aug 26 15::38:19.423: OSPF: Exchange Done with 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0
*Aug 26 15::38:19.423: OSPF: Synchronized with 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0, state FULL
*Aug 26 15::38:19.423: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 110, Nbr 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done
*Aug 26 15::38:19.423: OSPF: Send DBD to 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 seq 0x13F6 opt 0x52 flag 0x0 len 32
*Aug 26 15::38:19.679: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 0, router ID 2.2.2.2, seq 0x80000001
*Aug 26 15::38:24.139: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 length 64 LSA count 1
*Aug 26 15::38:24.239: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 length 64 LSA count 1
*Aug 26 15::38:24.739: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 4.4.4.4 on FastEthernet0/0 length 64 LSA count 1
*Aug 26 15::38:24.747: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 length 64 LSA count 1
R2#
R2#
*Aug 26 15::38:29.143: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 0, router ID 2.2.2.2, seq 0x80000003
*Aug 26 15::38:29.167: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.1 on FastEthernet0/0 length 64 LSA count 1
//以上的输出表明:
① DR重新选举的过程和结果,新的DR是R1,BDR是R4;结果如下:
R1#sh ip os nei
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
2.2.2.2           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:33    192.168.1.2     FastEthernet0/0
3.3.3.3           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:31    192.168.1.3     FastEthernet0/0
4.4.4.4           1   FULL/BDR        00:00:35    192.168.1.4     FastEthernet0/0
R1#sh ip ospf interface
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 192.168.1.1/24, Area 0
  Process ID 110, Router ID 1.1.1.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1
  Designated Router (ID) 1.1.1.1, Interface address 192.168.1.1
  Backup Designated router (ID) 4.4.4.4, Interface address 192.168.1.4
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:08
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Index 2/2, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 0, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
  Neighbor Count is 3, Adjacent neighbor count is 3
    Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2
    Adjacent with neighbor 3.3.3.3
    Adjacent with neighbor 4.4.4.4  (Backup Designated Router)
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
R2#sh ip os nei
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
1.1.1.1           1   FULL/DR         00:00:31    192.168.1.1     FastEthernet0/0
3.3.3.3           1   2WAY/DROTHER    00:00:35    192.168.1.3     FastEthernet0/0
4.4.4.4           1   FULL/BDR        00:00:39    192.168.1.4     FastEthernet0/0
R2#sh ip ospf interface
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 192.168.1.2/24, Area 0
  Process ID 110, Router ID 2.2.2.2, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DROTHER, Priority 1
  Designated Router (ID) 1.1.1.1, Interface address 192.168.1.1
  Backup Designated router (ID) 4.4.4.4, Interface address 192.168.1.4
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:04
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Index 1/1, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 0, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 4 msec
  Neighbor Count is 3, Adjacent neighbor count is 2
    Adjacent with neighbor 1.1.1.1  (Designated Router)
    Adjacent with neighbor 4.4.4.4  (Backup Designated Router)
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
R3#sh ip os nei
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
1.1.1.1           1   FULL/DR         00:00:39    192.168.1.1     FastEthernet0/0
2.2.2.2           1   2WAY/DROTHER    00:00:33    192.168.1.2     FastEthernet0/0
4.4.4.4           1   FULL/BDR        00:00:36    192.168.1.4     FastEthernet0/0
R3#sh ip ospf interface
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 192.168.1.3/24, Area 0
  Process ID 110, Router ID 3.3.3.3, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DROTHER, Priority 1
  Designated Router (ID) 1.1.1.1, Interface address 192.168.1.1
  Backup Designated router (ID) 4.4.4.4, Interface address 192.168.1.4
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:03
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Index 1/1, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 0, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
  Neighbor Count is 3, Adjacent neighbor count is 2
    Adjacent with neighbor 1.1.1.1  (Designated Router)
    Adjacent with neighbor 4.4.4.4  (Backup Designated Router)
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
R4#sh ip os nei
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
1.1.1.1           1   FULL/DR         00:00:35    192.168.1.1     FastEthernet0/0
2.2.2.2           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:30    192.168.1.2     FastEthernet0/0
3.3.3.3           1   FULL/DROTHER    00:00:38    192.168.1.3     FastEthernet0/0
R4#sh ip ospf interface
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
  Internet Address 192.168.1.4/24, Area 0
  Process ID 110, Router ID 4.4.4.4, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 1
  Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State BDR, Priority 1
  Designated Router (ID) 1.1.1.1, Interface address 192.168.1.1
  Backup Designated router (ID) 4.4.4.4, Interface address 192.168.1.4
  Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
    oob-resync timeout 40
    Hello due in 00:00:00
  Supports Link-local Signaling (LLS)
  Index 2/2, flood queue length 0
  Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
  Last flood scan length is 1, maximum is 1
  Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
  Neighbor Count is 3, Adjacent neighbor count is 3
    Adjacent with neighbor 1.1.1.1  (Designated Router)
    Adjacent with neighbor 2.2.2.2
    Adjacent with neighbor 3.3.3.3
  Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)
② 在OSPF邻接关系建立的过程中,接口状态的变化包括DOWN,2WAY,EXSTART,EXCHANGE,LOADING和FULL。
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